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SPI (serial peripheral interface) using AVR microcontroller (ATmega16)

There are different protocols for serial communication between two deceives like, USART, SPI, I2C etc. Before selecting any communication protocol, data transfer rate is an important parameter. SPI transfers data at high speed data. AVR microcontroller contains on chip SPI interface. This article will explore the hardware configuration and programming of SPI. Serial Peripheral Interface is a synchronous, fu ...

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Waveform Generation using AVR Microcontroller (Atmega16) Timers

At times we come across applications or situations wherein we need to generate square waves with the microcontroller. The square wave can be generated by programming a pin which toggles between 0 and 1 with a certain time delay. Alternatively, the inbuilt feature of AVR timers can be used in square wave generation. The advantage of using AVR timers in wave form generation is that the output pin toggles auto ...

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How to use External (Hardware) Interrupts of AVR Microcontroller (ATmega16)

This article introduces the concept of interrupts and the different types of interrupts in AVR Microcontroller (ATmega16). Interrupt as the name suggests, interrupts the current routine of the microcontroller. Microcontroller executes instructions in a sequence as per the programs. Sometimes there may be a need of handling planned and higher priority events instantaneously that might occur during the normal ...

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How to interface LED with AVR Microcontroller (ATmega16)

ATmega16 has 32 I/O pins to communicate with external devices.  Before interfacing with external devices, these pins must be cofigured as input or output pin. This article demonstrates the basic I/O operation of ATmega 16 using LEDs. All the four ports can be configured to read an input from some external device or to give output to any external device as per the application. For e.g., a switch is connected ...

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How to interface keypad with AVR microcontroller (ATmega16)

Keypad is most widely used input device to provide input from the outside world to the microcontroller. The keypad makes an application more users interactive.  The concept of interfacing a keypad with the ATmega16 is similar to interfacing it with any other microcontroller. The article of Interfacing keypad with 8051 can be referred for detailed description of the methodology used here. This article explai ...

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How to use I2C / TWI (Two Wire Interface) in AVR ATmega32

This article explores the TWI interfacing between two ATmega32 controllers. Readers are advised to go through TWI Communication and TWI registers of ATmega32 before going further. TWI works in four modes: 1.        MASTER as a transmitter. 2.        MASTER as a receiver. 3.        SLAVE as a receiver. 4.        SLAVE as a transmitter. Generally modes 1 & 3 and modes 2 & 4 are used together. This art ...

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How to take input from a particular pin of ATmega16

For understanding the human needs a system must be able to take input from user. The devices which can be used to take input for a system are keypad, touch screen, etc. In the article LED blinking, the microcontroller drives the LED or in embedded language the microcontroller was set to give o/p, this article gives brief information of getting an input from user at a particular pin of microcontroller. In or ...

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