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CT Sensor on AVR ATmega




A CT (Current Transformers) sensor is a device used to measure alternating current.
A CT sensor, like other current transformers is made by a primary winding, a magnetic core and a secondary winding. The primary winding is often a single wire passing through the main core of the transformer. The seconday winding is used to sense the AC current passing through the primary winding wire. They are usually build to be clipped on the primary wire. As any other AC transformer the primary winding current produce a change in the magnetic field of the core. This change cause current on the secondary winding.
CT Sensor on AVR ATmega

This library implements a way to read current using a CT sensor on ATmega.
It performs an RMS read on ADC, then computes the RMS voltage on ADC input.
So the primary current Ip is calculated by using the formula

Ip = V * Ns / Rburden

Given
Ns = Turns on secondary coil, i.e. the CT sensor core turns
Rburden = Burden resistor of the CT sensor.Circuit CT Sensor on AVR ATmega

Below some tips on how the CT sensor works, and how to find an appropriate value for the burden resistore.

Given
Vp = Voltage on primary
Vs = Voltage on secondary
Np = Turns on primary
Ns = Turns on secondary
Ip = Current on primary
Is = Current on seconday
CTratio = Np / Ns

From the Faraday’s Law
Vs/Vp = Ns/Np

And, due to conservation of energy
Vp*Ip = Vs*Is

So
Vp = (Np/Ns)*Vs
and
Vp = (Vs*Is)/Ip
Then
CTratio*Vs = (Vs*Is)/Ip

For more detail: CT Sensor on AVR ATmega

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