This tutorial focuses to teach you how to program AVR Serial Communication (UART). UART plays an important role in almost every embedded applications which we see in our day to life and hence it was considered to be very important concept in every Microcontroller.
The above design demonstrates the usage of UART to send and receive data via hyperterminal as well display the received data in 1 16×2 LCD. As we all know Microcontroller works in TTL logic which is not compatible with the PC so we have to employ a level converter IC MAX232, read more about the working of IC MAX232.
REGISTERS USED IN AVR SERIAL COMMUNICATION:
In AVR there are five registers which are meant to use for Serial Communication such as UDR, UBBR , UCSRA, UCSRB, UCSRC. Lets see the functions of these registers briefly.
UDR or USART Data Register is meant for writing and receiving the data through the UART. In this there are two shift registers referred to as Transmit Shift register and Receive Shift register with each having a separate buffer register. When the data is written to UDR it will be transferred to Transmit Data buffer register and when we read the contents of the Receive Data buffer register is returned.
In AVR the baud rate of the UART is programmable and it is achieved by means of this UBRR register. It is 16 bit register classified into lower UBRRL and higher UBRRH out of which 12 bit is usable The formula governing the relation between the value of UBRR and Oscillator is
Baud Rate = (Oscillator Frequency / (16( UBRR Value +1))
So for a 8MHz oscillator frequency and 9600 baud rate the value need to be loaded in the UBRR will be
UBRR = (8MHZ /16(9600))-1
=(500KHz/ 9600) – 1
= 51 ( equivalent hex 33)
Read More: AVR Serial Communication (UART) Programming tutorial