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Boolean Algebra Calculator

  1. Power Supply: It can be defined as a device that supplies electrical energy to one or more electric loads. The term is most commonly applied to devices that convert one form of electrical energy to another, though it may also refer to devices that convert another form of energy (e.g., mechanical, chemical, solar) to electrical energy. In our project a supply mains that is 5volt d.C. is given to the microcontroller, LED’s , keypad, display.
    Boolean Algebra Calculator
  2. Microcontroller: Microcontroller ATMEGA 16L is used for the automation purpose and acts as brain of the project. It controls the output (Display) according to the input given to it. Read the post: Microcontroller Basics to get basic knowledge about microcontrollers.
  3. Display: The Display used here is 3 Bi-color LED’s. The Glowing Pattern of LED’s represent the desired minimized expression.
  4. Keypad: In this project series of switches have been used as keypad, is used to give the input (min-terms) expression. Each digit on the keypad corresponds to one min-term each.

    Boolean Algebra Calculator scamatic
    Circuit Schematic:

    This circuit is a simple 3 variable Boolean expression minimizer. It uses the Quine McCluskey algorithm which was described in the chapter 1.In this the microcontroller plays a major role, it consists of code to implement the described algorithm as well as controlls other components in the circuit.

    Initially when the power is switched on an LED will glow which indicates that the microcontroller is ready to take the input. Here the input boolean expression is given in SOP form, i.e only min-terms are to be entered through the keypad provided.

    The keypad consists of 9 switches of which 8 switches corresponds to one min-term each and the 9th one is used as next button.After entering the expression the input indicating LED will go OFF, now based on the algorithm microcontroller reduces the expression and the input representing LED glows which means that the expression has been minimized and is displayed.

    The display consists of 3 Bi-color LED’s in which Green Light represents the variables in normal form and the rest Red Light represents the variables in the complemented form, the order of them is as shown in the circuit diagram.

    The output is displayed as one min-term at a time, next min-term is displayed by pressing the next button and after reaching the last min-term of the reduced expression the input indicating LED is switched OFF which represents end of the output. After few seconds it is again switched ON automatically when microcontroller is ready to take the next input.

    For more detail:  Boolean Algebra Calculator

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The main aim of this project is to operate and control the unmanned railway gate in the proper manner in order to avoid the accidents in the unmanned railway crossing. In a country like ours where there are many unmanned railway crossings, accidents are increasing day by day. These train accidents are due to the absence of human power in the railway. In order to overcome the accidents due to the above problem we have planned to design the project. Automatic Railway Gate Control System with High Speed Alerting System is an innovative circuit which automatically controls the operation of railway gates detecting the arrival and departure of trains at the gate. It has detectors at the far away distance on the railway track which allows us to know the arrival and departure of the train. These detectors are given to microcontroller which activates the motors which open/close the railway gate correspondingly. Also Read the Post: Automatic Door Bell With Object Detection Another feature of this circuit is that it has an intelligent alerting system which detects the speed of the train that is arriving. If the speed is found to be higher than the normal speed, then the microcontroller automatically activates the alarm present at the gate. This alerts the passengers at the railway crossing on the road about this. Also This circuit has the feature for Identification of train from other intruders i.e, animals etc .This can be implemented in manned level crossings also, as manual errors can be eliminated by automation. Initially transmitter is continuously transmitting the IR light which is made to fall on the receiver. When the train arrives it cuts the light falling on receiver. Let us assume the train is arriving from left to right, now when the train cuts the 1st sensor pair a counter is activated and when it crosses 2nd sensor pair the counter is stopped. This counter value gives the time period which is used to calculate the velocity of the train. The sensor2 output is sent to microcontroller which makes the relay activate which causes the gate to be closed. Now when the last carriage of the train cuts the sensor4 microcontroller de-activates the relay and gates are opened. How does the sensor know the last carriage? Here as previously mentioned the counter value is used to calculate the velocity of the train, which means that every wheel of the carriage cuts the sensor pair within small fraction of time based on its velocity. After the last carriage is passed there is no obstacle to the sensor pair within that fraction of time hence it knows that the train has left. One more feature of this circuit is detecting a train accurately i.e, there may be a chance that some obstacle (for e.g some animal) may cut the sensor then in such a case the counter is made to run for certain period of time (this time period is set considering the possible lowest speed of train) if the obstacle does not cut the 2nd sensor before this predefined time then this obstacle is not considered as train and gates remain opened.
Automatic Railway Gate Controller with High Speed Alerting System

The main aim of this project is to operate and control the unmanned railway gate in the proper manner in...

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