Ceramic and Plastic Ball Grid Array Packaging for High Reliability Applications

Torrance, CA (PRWEB) August 29, 2006

When designing ball grid array components for high reliability applications it is very important to first understand the material system that will be used to manufacture the circuit card and electronic components that will be assembled into the desired electronic system. Designers need to be able to balance the material system of these components and circuit cards to reduce the mismatch between the material properties used to manufacture the electronic components. The deltas between these physical material properties should be estimated and dealt with respectively in the design phase. Electronic component manufacturers should therefore consider providing the same electronic component with different interconnecting substrate materials. Some well documented material properties which are commonly used to manufacture PCBs and electronic components are listed.


Many different technical issues come to play when designing and manufacturing high reliability ball grid array components. The thermo-mechanical behavior of these components will depend on the physical constants of the materials utilized to fabricate the electronic components.


Therefore, it becomes important to study the interaction of these materials when in contact with each other. These behaviors can be predicted by utilizing computer finite element analysis tools and then by verifying the theoretical predictions by testing actual electronic hardware test articles. EPS performed finite element analyses on BGA electro-magnetic BGA components and the results obtained are summarized herein.


Advantages of Finite Element Analysis:


Rapid Evaluation of Designs Using Various Materials.


Locate and Address Locations in Assembly Where Structural Failure Would Occur.


Models Should Be Created For:


Largest and Smallest of Substrate Designs


Multiple Combinations of Materials


Models Run Through Temperature Excursions to Simulate Fabrication and Environmental Testing.


BGA Magnetic Components Are a Complex Assembly of Several Materials:


Ceramic Substrates


Organic Substrates


Exotic Ceramics /SiO2 / GaAs / InP


Epoxies (Cond. / Non-Cond)


Encapsulants / Coatings


Solders / Brazes / Metals


Heat sinking Materials / Tabs


Wire / Ribbon Bonds


Finite element analyses confirmed previously reported findings. The center of the BGA package is the lowest stress area called the Neutral Point. Stress levels are highest in the package corners and along the outside edges. The levels of stress will be directly proportional to the mismatch in the material properties used to fabricate the components & PCBs.


Electrical circuit performance can also be predicted by utilizing advanced electrical performance simulation models. These tools can be utilized to help determine the design boundaries required to ensure the hardware design will meet required electrical performance specifications. This is particularly important when designing RF circuits for high frequencies. Below we present the results obtained by one of these RF circuit performance simulation tools while varying the CBGA ball diameter to predict the electrical performance above 20GHz.


The finite element analysis and RF circuit performance simulation results require they be submitted through theoretical and actual testing validation processes. The theoretical validation process should entail the fine tuning of material properties in the laboratory and then re-entered into the software models. The actual testing validation process entails actually building electronic hardware and submitting them to accelerated stress inducing tests which enables designers and manufacturing engineers to optimize the designs used for high reliability applications.


Thermo-Mechanical BGA Test Articles:


This validation processes requires that actual electronic test articles be submitted to different types of electrical and thermo-mechanical stress inducing tests. The environmental stress inducing tests utilized were Accelerated Thermal Cycling, Vibration (three axis), Thermal Shock and Highly Accelerated Stress Test (HAST). Typical failure modes were analyzed to understand the interactions between the different materials that compose the BGA packaging configurations. Using Coffin-Manson relationship, exponent of 2.4, 14 year, 25

About The Author

Ibrar Ayyub

I am an experienced technical writer holding a Master's degree in computer science from BZU Multan, Pakistan University. With a background spanning various industries, particularly in home automation and engineering, I have honed my skills in crafting clear and concise content. Proficient in leveraging infographics and diagrams, I strive to simplify complex concepts for readers. My strength lies in thorough research and presenting information in a structured and logical format.

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