Enhancing An FM Transmitter’s Firmware using ATmega48

This hack is about rewriting the firmware of PLL FM transmitters based on AVR microcontrollers to add more functionalities. They’re commonly available on eBay from various sellers and for prices ranging from $40 to $80, depending mostly on the RF output power.

FM Transmitter’s Firmware

If you don’t know if a similar transmitter is based on an AVR or not, don’t hesitate to ask the seller for a (good) picture of the PCB. They’ll certainly accept as there isn’t anything secret about the design.

Most of the transmitters I came across in that price range are based on AVRs. Those that are able to read audio files from SD cards or USB drives probably host an obscure microcontroler capable of handling those functionalities easily (not supported here !).

The transmitter I used to test this hack relies on a ATMega48 micro and a BH1415 PLL FM transmitter chip (complete datasheet).
The user interface is made of a 3.5 digits display and 2 buttons (normally used to, you guessed it, increment and decrement the frequency).
A 3-wire link between the micro and FM modulator chip allows it to configure the frequency and transmission type (mono or stereo).
I hooked up my knockoff AVRISP programmer to the convenient 6-way ISP header footprint on the PCB, powered up the transmitter and checked if I could read the device signature.
Surprisingly, even with the slowest clock speed, the 3 bytes were changing at each read. That meant the power supply wasn’t stable enough, or the ISP lines were catching the RF stage’s output.
I then removed the 12V main input and only powered the AVR with an external and well rectified 5V source. The signature finally showed correctly !
The next step was to see if I could at least do a backup of the original firmware by reading the flash memory contents. Unfortunately, it was locked, so I had no other choice than erasing the AVR and writing everything from scratch.
First, I had to know how the AVR was connected to the rest of the circuit.

FM Transmitter’s Firmware schematic

Nothing complicated, it was just a matter of following traces and beeping a few hidden ones. The 7-segment display interface (on port B and D) has obviously been routed to simplify the board layout. The BH1415 interface and button inputs are on port C.
Nothing can really go wrong as all the signals for the LEDs of the display go through 1k resistors (twice, in fact), and the BH1415 is immune to bad data.
For more detail: Enhancing An FM Transmitter’s Firmware using ATmega48

About The Author

Ibrar Ayyub

I am an experienced technical writer holding a Master's degree in computer science from BZU Multan, Pakistan University. With a background spanning various industries, particularly in home automation and engineering, I have honed my skills in crafting clear and concise content. Proficient in leveraging infographics and diagrams, I strive to simplify complex concepts for readers. My strength lies in thorough research and presenting information in a structured and logical format.

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